Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 49

www.PetfoodIndustry.com | 49

Upon addition to hot water, agaragar forms a brittle gel as it cools
below 40 C and then resists melting at
temperatures in excess of 85 C. This
wide range of "hysteresis" makes it a
good choice in canned foods where it
forms, at the molecular level, a latticework that resembles leaves of a fern. At
this molecular level, agar-agar consists
of linear galactan polysaccharides from
the cell wall of the red seaweed. This
mixture of polysaccharides form agarose
and agaropectin. The agarose is made
up of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose and
D-galactose units along with pectins
(galacturonic acid). Agar-agar has a
relatively low sulfate concentration but a
high gel strength relative to other plantbased hydrocolloids.

Agar-agar food-based
applications
In its application to food preparation, agar-agar is not cold dispersible but
goes into solution as the temperature
increases in a range of 30-40 C. The
gel forms a macromolecular network
of agarose molecules in hydrogen

bonds. It typically gels at a pH greater
than 4 (most canned foods are a pH of
~6). It has synergy with other gels like
carob and locust bean gum, and works
well in meats. It is functional at low
concentrations (0.2-0.5 percent). No
ions are needed for gelation like those
in carrageenan or alginates and it is not
affected by other cation concentrations.
It is relatively odorless and tasteless.  

the colon. But, this would be minimal
and no upper ADI was mandated by the
European Union (EFSA).
Historically, it has been used in
confections and baked goods and has
now grown to be a popular gelling
agent in place of gelatin in vegan and
vegetarian foods. These additional uses
have put increased pressure on the
supply of agar-agar. This is exacerbated

FULL INGREDIENT ISSUES LIBRARY
www.PetfoodIndustry.com/Petfood-Industry-Knowledge-Center
In the AAFCO Official Publication (2017), it is listed under Subpart
H - Stabilizers as part of PART 582 -
Substances Generally Recognized as
Safe in Animal Feeds and labeled as
"Agar-agar." In the European Union it
is listed as "E406." Its safety has been
verified numerous times in animal
feeding studies with no reported genotoxicity or carcinogenicity. Because it is
a carbohydrate, one could expect slight
modification from fermentation with the
production of short chain fatty acids in

further by tightening availability due to
production challenges and trade restrictions in some regions.
Agar-agar appears to be a viable
solution to gelling in a canned pet food
application. It has been demonstrated
to be safe for food use for centuries.
While supply and cost may become an
issue in the future due to competing
demands, its application in pet food
should be a real option for those
companies and customers looking for
an alternative. ■

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Industry January 2018


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Petfood Industry - January 2018

Petfood Industry - January 2018
Contents
Top 2018 pet food trends: clean label, full transparency
Industry News
New Products
WellPet: focus on freeze-dried, raw meat premium pet food
3 pet food trends that continue to redefine the industry
Top pet health trends impacting pet nutrition research
Addressing health issues in older dogs with pet food
What to expect from FSMA pet food safety inspections
Petfood Forum Asia: innovation for rising pet food markets
How to convene a GRAS panel for novel pet food ingredients
Agar-agar: Gelling agent option for canned dog and cat foods
US pet food market to reach US$27 billion in 2018
Marketplace
Advertiser’s Index
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - CT1
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - CT2
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Petfood Industry - January 2018
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Cover2
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 1
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Contents
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 3
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Top 2018 pet food trends: clean label, full transparency
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 5
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Industry News
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 7
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 8
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 9
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - New Products
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 11
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 12
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 13
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 14
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 15
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 16
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 17
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - WellPet: focus on freeze-dried, raw meat premium pet food
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - BB1
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - BB2
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 19
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 20
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 21
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 3 pet food trends that continue to redefine the industry
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 23
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 24
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 25
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 26
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 27
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 28
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 29
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Top pet health trends impacting pet nutrition research
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 31
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Addressing health issues in older dogs with pet food
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 33
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 34
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 35
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - What to expect from FSMA pet food safety inspections
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 37
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 38
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 39
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 40
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 41
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Petfood Forum Asia: innovation for rising pet food markets
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 43
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - How to convene a GRAS panel for novel pet food ingredients
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 45
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 46
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 47
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Agar-agar: Gelling agent option for canned dog and cat foods
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 49
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - US pet food market to reach US$27 billion in 2018
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 51
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 52
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 53
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Marketplace
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - 55
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Advertiser’s Index
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Cover3
Petfood Industry - January 2018 - Cover4
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