Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 17

FAT TYPE AND AMOUNT: ITS IMPACT
ON PALATABILITY

RESEARCH REVEALS PREFERENCE DIFFERENCES IN DOGS AND CATS
FOR KIBBLE FAT SOURCES AND CONCENTRATIONS

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, AFB INTERNATIONAL
Overview:
Fat plays an important role in dog and cat food, providing
nutritional, functional and palatability benefits. The type and
amount of fat used varies by the diet, the finished product
specifications and the manufacturer. There has been limited
research evaluating the correlation between palatability and
topical fat sources and their applied amounts, leaving many
pet food manufacturers questioning the potential impact
various combinations may have on dog and cat preference.
To evaluate, AFB International conducted research at
the company's Palatability Assessment Resource Center
(PARC) facility on the effect both external fat sources
and levels have on palatability preference in dogs and
cats. The research found differences in fat sources
and levels preferred by dogs and cats, demonstrating
that diets can be tailored based on animal preferences.
These insights help pet food manufacturers determine
potential fat source and concentration adjustments to
increase palatability of their dog and cat food brands.

Experimental Design and Trial Protocol:
The study design consisted of 5 sources of fat (canola oil,
chicken fat, beef tallow, bacon fat, and herring oil) applied
topically at two levels (3% and 9%). The different sources of
fat represented a variety of flavors and aromas, while the two
application levels simulated the low and high levels applied
in a topical coating. To control variability, the same kibble,
equipment, measurements and palatants were used on
both rations in each species. All combinations were topically
coated on an economy grain-based dog and cat kibble along
with a non-meat palatant. The fat and palatant were applied
sequentially on the kibble. Each fat source and application
level combination was tested versus each other in a round
robin process and the data analyzed in a Bradley-Terry model.
This took the data from each pairing and formed a ranking
of the fats from most preferred to least. Feeding trials were
conducted with mixed breed animal panels at PARC. Paired
preference feeding trials were conducted with two exposures
(20 animal x 2 days) and bowl placement was alternated each
day. Data was collected on grams consumed and the firstchoice bowl for both animal species.

Results:

Dogs and cats have different preferences when it comes to
the source and concentration of fat source.

Dog and Cat Panel Trial Results: Fat source and
applied percentage in order of preference
Preference
Ranking

Dog Trials:
Fat Source / Fat
Concentration

Cat Trials:
Fat Source / Fat
Concentration

1

Bacon / 9%E

Bacon / 3% CD

2

Beef Tallow / 9%

3

Herring / 9% C

Canola / 9%BCD

4

Chicken / 9%

Herring / 3%BCD

5

Bacon / 3% C

6

Beef Tallow / 3%

7

Canola / 3% AB

Chicken / 9%BCD

8

Chicken / 3% AB

Beef Tallow / 3%BC

9

Herring / 3%

10

D

C

Chicken / 3%D

Canola / 3%BCD
B

AB

Canola / 9% A

Beef Tallow / 9%BCD

Bacon / 9%B
Herring / 9% A

For each species, letters in super-script represent statistical significance

For dogs, the results showed a greater overall response to
higher fat concentrations / percentage levels (9% vs. 3%). The
results also demonstrated a preference for fat sources with
more flavor and aroma. Additionally, there was a significant
difference in palatability between the two highest-ranked
variables compared to all others.
Cat trial results were very different compared to the dog trial
results. For cats, there was less preference differentiation
between the top ranked fat sources and concentrations
vs. the bottom ranked, which statistically did not provide
a stand-alone favorite as in the dog trials. Cats, overall,
preferred the lower fat concentration level (3%). Fat sources
with more flavor, such as bacon, also ranked well.

Conclusions:
The research showed differences in kibble fat sources and
concentration preferences in dogs and cats. For dogs, a
nine percent fat concentration on a kibble will be generally
preferred over the lower application of three percent. Bacon
and beef tallow fat sources were the most preferred by dogs
in the trials.
For cats, a three percent fat concentration will generally
perform better than the nine percent for majority of the
fat sources.

To learn more about AFB International's Dog and Cat Kibble Fat Source and
Level Preferences research, contact Greg Hibbard at ghibbard@afbinternational.
com or visit AFB online at afbinternational.com or palatantsplus.com

Argentina | Australia | Brazil | China | Mexico | Netherlands | United States


http://www.afbinternational.com http://www.palatantsplus.com

Petfood Industry - May 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Petfood Industry - May 2019

Petfood Industry - May 2019
Contents
Pet food M&A reaches throughout the supply chain
Speaking of…
Top 50 companies in 2019
Latin America pet food ingredient use: local vs. imported
Is pet food production signaling recession in Mexico?
Brazil pet food market likely to maintain positive growth
Venezuela’s crisis is worsening pets’ nutrition
Argentina: pet-loving market dealing with poor economy
Guide to Petfood Forum Europe 2019
Independent Conclusions of GRAS: Will AAFCO allow?
Synthetic preservatives in my pet’s food —no thanks!
Pet market trends: signals from pet services
New Products
Marketplace
Advertiser’s Index May
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - BB1
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - BB2
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Petfood Industry - May 2019
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Cover2
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 1
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Contents
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 3
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Pet food M&A reaches throughout the supply chain
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 5
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Speaking of…
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 7
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 8
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 9
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Top 50 companies in 2019
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 11
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 12
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 13
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 14
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 15
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 16
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 17
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 18
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 19
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Latin America pet food ingredient use: local vs. imported
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 21
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 22
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 23
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Is pet food production signaling recession in Mexico?
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 25
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Brazil pet food market likely to maintain positive growth
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 27
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Venezuela’s crisis is worsening pets’ nutrition
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 29
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 30
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 31
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 32
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 33
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Argentina: pet-loving market dealing with poor economy
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 35
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 36
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 37
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Guide to Petfood Forum Europe 2019
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 39
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 40
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 41
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Independent Conclusions of GRAS: Will AAFCO allow?
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 43
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 44
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 45
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Synthetic preservatives in my pet’s food —no thanks!
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 47
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 48
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 49
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Pet market trends: signals from pet services
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 51
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 52
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - New Products
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 54
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 55
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 56
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 57
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 58
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 59
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 60
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 61
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Marketplace
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - 63
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Advertiser’s Index May
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Cover3
Petfood Industry - May 2019 - Cover4
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